You see in any energy transfer in ANY system there is a loss of energy in terms of heat. Once that energy is burned it's gone forever and there is no way to describe that loss in terms of evolution.
Sure there is.... the energy lost in any energy transfer in any system is called "entropy." It is described as joules per degree Kelvin. If one is relating that to mass or a chemical reaction, it may be described as joules per kilogram degree K or joules per mol degree K.
(Note: I'm unable to read the slides also.)