When looking at the complexity within a cell it's worth keeping in mind the following:
1) single-cell life reproduces quickly and with vast populations,
2) the conventional chronology offers hundreds of millions of years of adaptation before the emergence of multicellular life,
3) the incremental steps of selection serve as a bias towards what works for each generation so the current product is considerably more elaborate than had all components been assembled to fulfill the current function.
I noticed when people who believe in evolution they discuss the theory in broad brush stokes. That small incremental changes will cumulative into something very elaborate. It sounds so easy.
IMO we need to be more specific and break down the steps required to from step A to step B. The steps may look like the following:
1. Qualitative analysis: How many mutations would it take to get from step A-> B.
2. Exactly what mutations are essential: We can reverse engineer and lay out a map of exactly where and what mutations are needed. We can be flexible and say that hydrophobic amino acids can be interchanged at a specific position for example. That way we can increase the probability of something occurring.
3. Chronological order: Since the process is building on each prior step we could lay down some kind of chronological order when the mutations occurred.
4. Quantitative analysis: We have large number of organisms where we can determine what are the odds of getting a positive mutation. For example, a person with malaria will have ~ a trillion parasites and there are sever hundred million people infected every year for the past several decades. That is a large enough sample to determine what mutation and natural selection can and can not do.
5. Determine how much time is required: Based on the information above determine how much time it will take go from step A---> B. We can do this by dynamic simulation or Markov chains.
6. Check our hypothetical biological pathway with the facts. Do we have anyway to substantiate that the biological pathway could have occurred either by the fossil record, DNA sequencing or some other method?
For example, what steps are need to move from a Prokaryotic to a Eukaryotic Cell. Or maybe we could create a biological pathway of how the ribosomes changed:
The ribosome, which is responsible for the synthesis of all cellular proteins, itself is comprised of two distinct subunits that contain in all some 55 proteins and three ribosomal RNAs in the simplest (bacterial) form and about 75 proteins and 4 ribosomal RNAs in the eukaryotic form.
This is life at its most elemental form and yet it is very sophisticated. The steps required to from step A ---> B is substantial.
My point is that building something elaborate sounds easy but when is broken down into specifics it becomes very difficult if not impossible. IMHO a proven theory should move beyond abstracts and create defined pathways that are backed up with observed facts.