Human and Chimpanzee Chromosomes 1-4
Take a good look at the comparison of Chromosome 2. Notice the one on the left (human) is one chromosome while the other is two (chimpanzee). Supposedly, these two chromosomes fused but where are the specifics as to how this is accomplished. Truly, nature produces a vast array of size, shape, color, texture in a seemingly endless series of changes. What is more, the crossing over of genes can cause an enormous amount of diversity. However, the mechanism that splices two chromosomes into one without devastating consequences is a mystery. Here are a couple of noted effects from changes in genes:
"Chromosome 9 harbours four genes that can cause s@x-reversal, all the human interferon type 1 genes (interferon is important in suppressing cancer development and in resisting virus infection), a gene implicated in neurodegenerative disease (CHAC), as well as a gene (abl) that is involved in 90 per cent of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cases."
"The team decoded 131 million base-pairs of the chromosome 10 sequence and found 1357 genes. Alterations in 85 of these genes are known to predispose to diseases such as a form of epilepsy (LGI1), obesity (GAD2), and cancer."
Getting back to chromosome 2, there is an odd contradictory event in the presumed changes. It has been long believed that the changes just accumulate gradually. This looks good when you have millions of years to work with for putting together statistical probability. There is just one major problem with this, these genes that are supposedly duplicated, inverted, inserted, deleted...etc are subject to long periods of stasis.
"Researchers report today that regions of the human genome have been hotspots for acquiring duplicated DNA sequences Ã¢â‚¬â€œ but only at specific time-points during evolution. It appears that long periods of genomic stasis, at least with regard to the accretion of duplicated DNA fragments, are "punctuated" by relatively brief episodes of duplicative activity. This is the first time that such temporal bias has been documented for DNA duplications, and it challenges the evolutionary paradigm that continuous alterations occur during the course of genome evolution...
"The important implication here is that episodic bursts of activity challenge the concept of gradual clock-like changes during the course of genome evolution. Since duplications are important in the birth of new genes and large-scale chromosomal rearrangements, it may follow that these processes may have gone through similar episodes of activity followed by quiescence."
'Punctuated' evolution in the human genome, Maria A. Smit
This is the same problem at every step in the evolutionary chain, that is, crucial points of divergance. It is presumption over demonstrative proof.